Being A Successful Leader Using Ethical Decision Making Artur Victoria Research And Studies

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By Artur Victoria

Being a leader you have to train your skills on decision making.

Because of my extended experience I can help giving these reflection topics. I am available to develop any special need for you

This would focus on:

— Looking at some established models of ethical decision making;

— Examining and discussing cases/scenarios involving individual ethical dilemmas

— Examining the issue of Conflict of Interest from an ethical perspective

— Discussing organizational ethical climate as a factor in ethical decision making

Ethical Checklists

Example I: 12 Questions to ask yourself

1.Have you defined the problem accurately?

2.How would you define the problem if you stood on the other side of the fence?

3.How did this situation occur in the first place?

4.To whom and to what do you give your loyalty as a person and as a member of the corporation?

5.What is your intention in making this decision?

6.How does this intention compare with the probable results?

7.Whom could your decision or action injure?

8.Can you discuss the problem with the affected parties before you make your decision?

9.Could you disclose without qualm your decision or action to your boss, your CEO, the board of directors, your family, society as a whole?

10.Are you confident that your position will be as valid over a long period of time as it seems now?

11.What is the symbolic potential of your action if understood? misunderstood?

12.Under what conditions would you allow exceptions to your stand?

–Collect information and identify the problem.

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–Be alert; be sensitive to morally charged situations: Look behind the technical requirements of your job to see the moral dimensions. Use your ethical resources to determine relevant moral standards. Use your moral intuition.

–Identify what yOIl know and don’t know: While you gather information, be open to alternative interpretations of events. So within bounds of patient and institutional confidentiality, make sure that you have the perspectives of patients and families as weil as health care providers and administrators. While accuracy and thoroughness are important, there can be a trade-off between gathering more information and letting morality significant options disappear. So decisions may have to be made before the full story is known.

— State the case briefly with as many of the relevant facts and circumstances as you can gather within the decision time available:

What decisions have to be made?

Who are the decision-makers?

Remember that there may be more than one decision-maker and that their interactions can be important.

Be alert to actual or potential conflict of interest situations. A conflict of interest is “a situation in which a person, such as a public official, an employee, or a professional, has a private or personal interest sufficient to appear to a reasonable person to influence the

objective exercise of his or her official duties. “These include financial and financial

conflicts of interest (e.g., favouritism to a friend or relative).

In some situations, it is sufficient to make known to all parties that you are in a conflict of interest situation. In other cases, it is essential to step out a decision-making role.

Consider the context of decision-making

1 -Ask yourself why this decision is being made in this context at this time? Are there better contexts for making this decision? Are the right decision-makers included?

Specify feasible alternatives.

2 – State the live options at each stage of decision-making for each decision-maker. You then should ask what the likely consequences are of various decisions. Here, you should remember to take into account good or bad consequences not just for yourself, your profession, organization or patients, but for all affected persons. Be honest about your own stake in particular outcomes and encourage others to do the same.

3 – Use your ethical resources to identify morally significant factors in each alternative.

— Principles: What are the principles that are widely accepted in one form or another in the common moralities of many communities and organizations.

— Moral models: Sometimes you will get moral insight from modelling your behaviour on a person of great moral integrity.

— Use ethically informed sources: Policies and other source materials, professional norms such as institutional policies, legal precedents, and wisdom from your religious or cultural traditions.

— Context: Conlextual features of the case that seem important such as the past history of relationships with various parties.

— Personal judgments: Your judgments, your associates, and trusted friends or advisors can be invaluable. Of course in talking a tough decision over with others you have to respect client and employer confidentiality. Discussion with others is particularly important when other decision-makers are involved, such as, your employer, co-workers, clients, or partners.

Your professional or health care association may provide confidential advice. Experienced co-workers can be helpful. Many forward-looking health care institutions or employers have ethics committees or ombudsmen to provide advice. Discussion with a good friend or advisor can also help you by listening and offering their good advice.

— Organized procedures for ethical consultation: Consider a formal case conference(s), an ethics committee, or an ethics consultant.

4. Propose and test possible resolutions.

— Find the best consequences overall: Propose a resolution or select the best alternative(s), all things considered.

— Perform a sensitivity analysis: Consider your choice critically: which factors would have to change to get you to alter your decision? These factors are ethically pivotal.

— Consider the impact on the ethical performance of others: Think about the effect of each choice upon the choices of other responsible parties.

Are you making it easier or harder for them to do the right thing? Are you setting a good example?

— Would a good person do this?: Ask yourself what would a virtuous person – one with integrity and experience – do in these circumstances?

— What if everyone in these circumstances did this?: Formulate your choice as a general maxim for all similar cases?

— Will this maintain trust relationships with others?: If others are in my care or otherwise dependent on me, it is impoltant that I continue to deserve their trust.

— Does it still seem right?: Are you and the other decision-makers still comfortable with your choice(s)?

If you do not have consensus, revisit the process. Remember that you are not aiming at Uthe” perfect choice, but a reasonably good choice under the circumstances.

5. Make your choice.

Live with it and Learn from it: This means accepting responsibility for your choice. It also means accepting the possibility that you might be wrong or that you will make a less than optimal decision. The object is to make a good choice with the information available, not to make a perfect choice.

Learn from your failures and successes.

— Accepting a gm In return for organizational favors

— Peddling influence for a fee or for personal gain

— Insider trading

— Nepotism

— “Moonlighting” (some situations)

— Industrial relations activities

Often discussed in respect of “public duty” and public employee responsibility, but in fact goes to every sector of employment.

The potential benefits emanating from such a conflict can extend beyond the individual, to family members, business associates, friends etc.

Private activities as conflicts of interest

Rightly or wrongly, private activities can be seen as in conflict with organizational duty, even if not yielding monetary advantage, as potential causes of public embarrassment or diminishing

faith in tlre integrity of the individual and/or the organization.


— Social and business contacts

— Lifestyle “idiosyncrasies”

— Behavioral predilections (sexual 7)

— Activities of partners

— Use of substances (alcohol, drugs 7)

— Personal financial arrangements

— Political or Religious affiliations

Conflicts of Interest: Issues for resolution

What should be the major focus of our concern?

— Is it reasonable to require avoidance of you by employees ?

— To what extent are private lives relevant to organizational life ?

— What conditions need to be fulfilled to established that a C or I exists ?

— Should we allow the media or public opinion to dictate what is or is not a Col ?

— Is it appropriate to include spouses, family members, friends, business associates etc. in considering C of I ?

— Should people be required to declare their interests ?

Conflict of Interest

The ethical responsibility to ensure that our private interests do not interfere with the proper

accomplishment of our organizational duties.

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Posted on February 19th 2019 in Financial Planners

FOX News previews Grafton Street restaurant and “voice collector” in Harvard Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts

FOX News previews Grafton Street restaurant and “voice collector” in Harvard Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts
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Sunday, May 1, 2005

The FOX Morning News broadcast from Harvard Square this morning in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Anchors Liz Carrigan and Gene Lavanchy profiled a restaurant and a musician who will take part in the 22nd annual Mayfair, which starts on Sunday, May 1. The restaurant, Grafton Street, is on Massachusetts Avenue.

The Mayfair is a festival that takes place in Harvard Square on an annual basis. On Sunday, the Square will be closed from noon until 6 pm to vehicular traffic; according to the Mayfair website, “200 artists and merchants” will participate in the event this year.

The musician, Halsey Burgund, works for a computer security firm, but plays the drums and piano in his spare time. This morning, he had set up his portable recording booth to demonstrate the means by which he records passersby for voice samples in his music. Burgund will have his booth set up on Sunday and hopes to record festival visitors. Eventually, Burgund hopes to release his music under a Creative Commons license. Burgund noted that he previously tried recording people on the street with just a microphone, but he found that there was too much ambient noise for the quality of recording he desired.

Posted on February 19th 2019 in Uncategorized

Wikileaks release Afghan ‘war logs’ in co-operation with mainstream media

Wikileaks release Afghan ‘war logs’ in co-operation with mainstream media
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Tuesday, July 27, 2010

WikiLeaks has released a mass of “secret” material from the United States’ involvement in Afghanistan in the five years from 2004 to 2009.

The material was scrutinised in co-operation with the main stream newspapers The Guardian and The New York Times, and the German magazine Der Spiegel, who cross-referenced the leaked documents with published material to check the veracity of the material.

The material makes explicit the accusation that the Taliban is receiving support including man portable anti-aircraft missiles from Iran, and Pakistan. However, despite being condemned by the authorities in the United States, commentators have said that nothing in the released material would come as a surprise to anyone who has been following the war.

Posted on February 18th 2019 in Uncategorized

Spelbound declared winner of Britain’s Got Talent 2010

Spelbound declared winner of Britain’s Got Talent 2010
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Monday, June 7, 2010

An acrobatic group known by the name of Spelbound has been declared as the winner of Britain’s Got Talent 2010, a televised variety talent show competition broadcast on ITV in the United Kingdom. As the winning act of the show, Spelbound have won £100,000 (US$144,580, €120,313, A$175,079) and a place at The Royal Variety Performance, an annual gala evening that is attended by senior members of the British Royal Family.

In no particular order, the top three acts were revealed to be two dancers known by their stage name of Twist and Pulse, gymnastic group Spelbound and Kieran Gaffney, whose act involves playing on the drum kit. After Kieran Gaffney was revealed to be in third place, Anthony McPartlin, who hosts Britain’s Got Talent with Declan Donnelly, said to Kieran: “Well done Kieran. Kieran, you’re a star, you came back, you got all the way to the final. I know you’ve loved this. You’ve loved this, haven’t you?” In response to this, Kieran Gaffney stated: “Thank you very much. Thank you, everyone for supporting me. Thank you.”

Shortly afterwards, on the episode that was broadcast live on ITV1 on Saturday, Anthony announced: “After tens of thousands of auditons, five semi-finals and an amazing final, this…this is it. One of you is about to walk away with £100,000 and a place at this year’s Royal Variety Performance. The winner of Britain’s Got Talent 2010 is…Spelbound!” Glen Murphy from Twist and Pulse commented about finishing in second place, stating: “Yeah, it’s amazing. I can’t even believe it. I can’t believe it at all.”

Alex Uttley, a 24-year-old member of Spelbound, commented on the gymnastic group’s victory, commenting: “Oh, my god. This is unbelieveable. We just want to say thank you to everyone out there. It just shows that all our hard work has paid off.” One of the coaches of Spelbound, named Neil Griffiths, stated about Spelbound: “Oh, they’ve worked so hard over the last few weeks. Um, since the semi-final, we…we really had to pull out the stops to try and up the game. They’ve not known they’ve worked in the gym from six in the morning till twelve…twelve o’clock of the night. I couldn’t have asked for more. Um, it’s a team of coaches. I don’t take all the credit myself. There’s, uh, two people up there that know who they are who’ve been fantastic.”

Spelbound consists of 24-year-old Alex Uttley, Nicholas Illingworth, aged 24, Adam Buckingham, aged 21, 20-year-old Adam McAssey, 19-year-old Douglas Fordyce, 18-year-old Edward Upcott, 18-year-old Leighanne Cowler, 17-year-old Katie Axten, 17-year-old Lauren Kemp, 15-year-old Jonathan Stranks, Abigail Ralph, aged 15, 13-year-old Hollianne Wood and Amy Mackenzie, aged 12. Bookmakers had previously predicted that Spelbound would be the most likely act to become the winner of the series.

The running order for the final started with Twist and Pulse. The second act to perform was Liam McNally, a 14-year-old singer. The running order subsequently continued with 40-year-old impressionist Paul Burling, singer Christopher Stone, aged 28, Tina & Chandi, a woman and dog dancing act, Connected, a five-piece singing group, Kieran Gaffney, aged 12, 22-year-old Tobias Mead, a dancer, 80-year-old singer Janey Cutler and Spelbound in that particular order.

Earlier on in the final, Britain’s Got Talent judge Amanda Holden has stated to Spelbound: “We are hosting the 2012 Olympics and I think ‘what a brilliant opening act’.” Fellow judge Piers Morgan also commented that “[t]he purpose of this show is to identify hidden great British talent. You are that act.” After Spelbound won in the final, another judge, named Simon Cowell, stated that “the right boys and girls won on the night” and that he could “only say on live TV that that was one of the most astonishing things I have ever seen. Seriously.”

Posted on February 18th 2019 in Uncategorized

Wikinews interviews Joe Schriner, Independent U.S. presidential candidate

Wikinews interviews Joe Schriner, Independent U.S. presidential candidate
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Saturday, April 17, 2010

Journalist, counselor, painter, and US 2012 Presidential candidate Joe Schriner of Cleveland, Ohio took some time to discuss his campaign with Wikinews in an interview.

Schriner previously ran for president in 2000, 2004, and 2008, but failed to gain much traction in the races. He announced his candidacy for the 2012 race immediately following the 2008 election. Schriner refers to himself as the “Average Joe” candidate, and advocates a pro-life and pro-environmentalist platform. He has been the subject of numerous newspaper articles, and has published public policy papers exploring solutions to American issues.

Wikinews reporter William Saturn? talks with Schriner and discusses his campaign.

Posted on February 14th 2019 in Uncategorized

News briefs:May 06, 2010

News briefs:May 06, 2010
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Posted on February 14th 2019 in Uncategorized

Crossrail train approved for London

Crossrail train approved for London
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Wednesday, October 10, 2007

The £16 billion Crossrail Scheme, that will run through London, Berkshire and Essex was given the go ahead; construction will begin by 2010 and it is expected to be finished by 2017. The line, that will provide 24-hour trains to the centre of London from the east and the west, will provide a better rail link to the West End.

UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown said “It was a great day for London, Crossrail and the economy” with the project expected to add £20 billion a year to the UK economy.

The government is providing a third of the money with the rest made up from borrowing against future fares and a levy on London business rates.

The news was also welcomed from the railway union RMT, who had been protesting to the government to go further for a new north to south high speed rail link.

Crossrail is also hoped to reduce the overcrowding to airports such as Heathrow and many others.

Posted on February 14th 2019 in Uncategorized

Malware from mass SQL injections confirmed by security experts

Malware from mass SQL injections confirmed by security experts
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Thursday, June 5, 2008

Nearly 20,000 websites have been attacked by unknown malicious computer users using a technique known as an SQL injection. The attackers have inserted code to install malware onto visitors’ computers. The code exploits a newly-discovered weakness in Adobe Flash Player, a very common web-browser plugin. The attacks prompted an investigation by the Taiwanese information security industry into the source of these attacks.

An SQL injection is a common method employed by malicious users to attack and deface websites, arising from website mistakes in checking user input. Attackers take advantage of these weaknesses to inject information of their choosing into the website. For example, in June of 2007, Microsoft UK found its webpage changed to a picture of the Saudi Arabia flag, an attack which was carried out using an SQL injection.

According to SecurityFocus, this most recent series of attacks stems from a vulnerability in versions and of Flash Player. It allows attackers to load any code they wish onto a computer running these versions of Flash.

As the vulnerability in Flash is newly discovered, Adobe has not yet released a newer version which fixes the problem. For the time being, computer security experts recommend that internet users with one of the unprotected versions of Flash disable the plug-in on Mozilla Firefox or Internet Explorer to prevent malicious users from gaining control over their computers.

The most recent version of the Flash Player, version, does not appear to be vulnerable to this exploit.

Posted on February 13th 2019 in Uncategorized

Cleveland, Ohio clinic performs US’s first face transplant

Cleveland, Ohio clinic performs US’s first face transplant
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Thursday, December 18, 2008

A team of eight transplant surgeons in Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, USA, led by reconstructive surgeon Dr. Maria Siemionow, age 58, have successfully performed the first almost total face transplant in the US, and the fourth globally, on a woman so horribly disfigured due to trauma, that cost her an eye. Two weeks ago Dr. Siemionow, in a 23-hour marathon surgery, replaced 80 percent of her face, by transplanting or grafting bone, nerve, blood vessels, muscles and skin harvested from a female donor’s cadaver.

The Clinic surgeons, in Wednesday’s news conference, described the details of the transplant but upon request, the team did not publish her name, age and cause of injury nor the donor’s identity. The patient’s family desired the reason for her transplant to remain confidential. The Los Angeles Times reported that the patient “had no upper jaw, nose, cheeks or lower eyelids and was unable to eat, talk, smile, smell or breathe on her own.” The clinic’s dermatology and plastic surgery chair, Francis Papay, described the nine hours phase of the procedure: “We transferred the skin, all the facial muscles in the upper face and mid-face, the upper lip, all of the nose, most of the sinuses around the nose, the upper jaw including the teeth, the facial nerve.” Thereafter, another team spent three hours sewing the woman’s blood vessels to that of the donor’s face to restore blood circulation, making the graft a success.

The New York Times reported that “three partial face transplants have been performed since 2005, two in France and one in China, all using facial tissue from a dead donor with permission from their families.” “Only the forehead, upper eyelids, lower lip, lower teeth and jaw are hers, the rest of her face comes from a cadaver; she could not eat on her own or breathe without a hole in her windpipe. About 77 square inches of tissue were transplanted from the donor,” it further described the details of the medical marvel. The patient, however, must take lifetime immunosuppressive drugs, also called antirejection drugs, which do not guarantee success. The transplant team said that in case of failure, it would replace the part with a skin graft taken from her own body.

Dr. Bohdan Pomahac, a Brigham and Women’s Hospital surgeon praised the recent medical development. “There are patients who can benefit tremendously from this. It’s great that it happened,” he said.

Leading bioethicist Arthur Caplan of the University of Pennsylvania withheld judgment on the Cleveland transplant amid grave concerns on the post-operation results. “The biggest ethical problem is dealing with failure — if your face rejects. It would be a living hell. If your face is falling off and you can’t eat and you can’t breathe and you’re suffering in a terrible manner that can’t be reversed, you need to put on the table assistance in dying. There are patients who can benefit tremendously from this. It’s great that it happened,” he said.

Dr Alex Clarke, of the Royal Free Hospital had praised the Clinic for its contribution to medicine. “It is a real step forward for people who have severe disfigurement and this operation has been done by a team who have really prepared and worked towards this for a number of years. These transplants have proven that the technical difficulties can be overcome and psychologically the patients are doing well. They have all have reacted positively and have begun to do things they were not able to before. All the things people thought were barriers to this kind of operations have been overcome,” she said.

The first partial face transplant surgery on a living human was performed on Isabelle Dinoire on November 27 2005, when she was 38, by Professor Bernard Devauchelle, assisted by Professor Jean-Michel Dubernard in Amiens, France. Her Labrador dog mauled her in May 2005. A triangle of face tissue including the nose and mouth was taken from a brain-dead female donor and grafted onto the patient. Scientists elsewhere have performed scalp and ear transplants. However, the claim is the first for a mouth and nose transplant. Experts say the mouth and nose are the most difficult parts of the face to transplant.

In 2004, the same Cleveland Clinic, became the first institution to approve this surgery and test it on cadavers. In October 2006, surgeon Peter Butler at London‘s Royal Free Hospital in the UK was given permission by the NHS ethics board to carry out a full face transplant. His team will select four adult patients (children cannot be selected due to concerns over consent), with operations being carried out at six month intervals. In March 2008, the treatment of 30-year-old neurofibromatosis victim Pascal Coler of France ended after having received what his doctors call the worlds first successful full face transplant.

Ethical concerns, psychological impact, problems relating to immunosuppression and consequences of technical failure have prevented teams from performing face transplant operations in the past, even though it has been technically possible to carry out such procedures for years.

Mr Iain Hutchison, of Barts and the London Hospital, warned of several problems with face transplants, such as blood vessels in the donated tissue clotting and immunosuppressants failing or increasing the patient’s risk of cancer. He also pointed out ethical issues with the fact that the procedure requires a “beating heart donor”. The transplant is carried out while the donor is brain dead, but still alive by use of a ventilator.

According to Stephen Wigmore, chair of British Transplantation Society’s ethics committee, it is unknown to what extent facial expressions will function in the long term. He said that it is not certain whether a patient could be left worse off in the case of a face transplant failing.

Mr Michael Earley, a member of the Royal College of Surgeon‘s facial transplantation working party, commented that if successful, the transplant would be “a major breakthrough in facial reconstruction” and “a major step forward for the facially disfigured.”

In Wednesday’s conference, Siemionow said “we know that there are so many patients there in their homes where they are hiding from society because they are afraid to walk to the grocery stores, they are afraid to go the the street.” “Our patient was called names and was humiliated. We very much hope that for this very special group of patients there is a hope that someday they will be able to go comfortably from their houses and enjoy the things we take for granted,” she added.

In response to the medical breakthrough, a British medical group led by Royal Free Hospital’s lead surgeon Dr Peter Butler, said they will finish the world’s first full face transplant within a year. “We hope to make an announcement about a full-face operation in the next 12 months. This latest operation shows how facial transplantation can help a particular group of the most severely facially injured people. These are people who would otherwise live a terrible twilight life, shut away from public gaze,” he said.

Posted on February 11th 2019 in Uncategorized

News briefs:August 3, 2010

News briefs:August 3, 2010
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Posted on February 11th 2019 in Uncategorized